Perovskite Series Deposition Equipment
Angstrom has engineered a platform that provides the photovoltaic and light emission communities a powerful tool for discovery and innovation using perovskite-based materials. The exceptional light absorption and charge transport properties of perovskites have made them an extremely attractive material set for solar cell research and development. Many of Angstrom’s partners are already working with this promising class of material in a variety of applications. The corrosive nature and high vapor pressure of many metal halides can create challenges for a vacuum deposition process. Angstrom has implemented a set of unique process considerations within our platform which — along with Angstrom’s built-in automation capabilities and unmatched customer support — will provide a path to breakthrough in this exciting field.
Core Performance Features
Perovskite Series deposition equipment features Aeres, our advanced process control software. Through its recipe-based user interface on the control station PC, it handles every aspect of the system, including rate control, datalogging, mask/substrate transfer, and layer termination.
Most active perovskite layers are deposited using thermal evaporation and many of these materials will present high vapor pressures at relatively low temperature. These high vapor pressures can cause unwanted material to redeposit from coated chamber surfaces during elevated processing temperatures, leading to uncontrolled contamination. Angstrom systems are equipped with extensive cooling solutions for sources, QCMs, shielding, and chamber walls to prevent material from redepositing and contaminating your process. With our carefully engineered cooling and shielding systems, you deposit only what you intend, where you intend it.
Moisture within the environment of a perovskite deposition chamber can negatively impact device performance and create corrosive byproducts which can be damaging to hardware. Angstrom provides a suite of solutions for removing moisture prior to – and during – deposition processes. Cryogenic high vacuum pumps are excellent at removing water and are comprised of internal components that are non-moving and corrosion resistant – all desirable properties for a perovskite-rich environment. Internal and external chamber bake-out encourage adsorbed water on all critical surfaces into the gas phase where it can be easily captured by the vacuum pump.
Perovskite series deposition equipment chambers are most often paired with an inert environment glovebox system, providing users an entire suite of capabilities that will enable the development of pure, repeatable perovskite devices. Fundamentally, keeping the deposition chamber from contact with atmosphere will keep its contents free of possible contamination, and our systems can easily accommodate this with a sliding chamber door from within the glovebox. Due to the corrosive nature of perovskite materials and their byproducts, the internal surfaces of Perovskite Series deposition equipment chambers are typically composed entirely of electropolished AISI (304 or 316) stainless steel.
Beyond this, we can integrate any number of capabilities, including device processing and characterization instruments such as solar simulators, spin coaters, automatic encapsulation systems, vacuum ovens, freezers, and particulate management through ionization and HEPA filtered vacuum canisters.
This feature, designed and created by Angstrom Engineering, gives you the ability to create multiple unique devices within the same run. You can change film thickness and deposition properties to create combinations of samples by isolating portions of the substrate matrix with the masking shutter. Quickly determine the desired properties of your perovskite devices by creating multiple samples within a single run. This video demonstrates its capabilities.
In Vacuum Substrate and Mask Exchange
Rapid device development requires the fabrication of multiple samples and we have developed several solutions that increase throughput. First, we have developed a single-chamber parking/exchange platform that can hold up to four different substrates or masks and is capable of automatically exchanging these parts without breaking vacuum. For larger volume requirements, a secondary vacuum parking chamber with a larger cassette can be added to the deposition chamber for sequencing up to 20 different substrates or masks.
Sputtering TCO layers
Many common perovskite devices require a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer. Common TCO materials are best suited for sputtering, which presents a challenge: the crystalline structure of perovskites is very sensitive to the energetic particles and heat generated in the sputter plasma. This high energy plasma can damage these perovskite layers which can be detrimental to their performance. Angstrom Engineering has developed a low energy TCO sputtering solution that helps keep the process temperature low and the substrates from being bombarded with high energy plasma while the layer is safely deposited.
The Angstrom system has revolutionized our work-flow. We are much more confident in our processing, and can push true scientific boundaries without worrying about the possibility that some technical detail will throw the experiment off. Angstrom Engineering has been wonderful to work with. The instrument and customer service are by far the best. Aeres process control software provides among the best control I’ve ever worked with. Learning to use the software was intuitive and straightforward. It was immediately easy to produce the desired deposition in a highly reproducible way.
Dr. Matthew White – University of Vermont
Can a Perovskite Series system help bring your work forward?
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